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Climate Change and Variability: implications for Household Food Security in Agro Pastoral Areas of Jijiga District, Eastern Ethiopia

Abstract: 

Ethiopia is one of the most vulnerable countries of the world to the impacts of climate change and variability. The impact is even stronger in pastoral areas of the country. However, studies on the actual climate change dynamics and its effect on food security at local and household levels is limited. The present study took Jijiga district as a case and analyzed changes in local climate; status of household food security; the relative significance of climate related causes of food insecurity; and household level determinants of food security.  The study used rainfall and temperature data from the period 1952 to 2010 and primary data gathered from 140 sample households and focus group discussions. Using Mann-Kendall trend test, the study revealed the existence of statistically significant declining trend in rainfall in the rainy season and increasing trend in temperature at annual and seasonal time scale. Moreover, respondents confirmed the presence of climate change, with increasing temperature, decreasing rainfall amount and increasing seasonality of rainfall in the past two decades. The Rash model estimation result based on the Food Security Core Module showed high prevalence of food insecurity in the district with 81 percent of food insecure households consisting of 27 percent food insecure without hunger, 29 percent food insecure with moderate hunger, and 25 percent food insecure with severe hunger. Respondents ranked climate factors as their top five most important causes of food insecurity. These are drought, expansion of unwanted plant species (parthinium), low annual rainfall, high temperature, and water shortage. The econometric model estimation result revealed the important factors determining household food security. These are household perception of climate change, use of soil and water conservation practice, use of livestock feed management techniques, loss of livestock due to drought and/or disease, literacy level of household head, and dependency ratio. Among other things, the study suggested improving climate change awareness, strengthening the existing adaptation measures that have positive food security role and promoting the livestock sector to help reduce the prevalence of high food insecurity and increase local resilience to climate change.

Corporate Author: 
Demirew Getachew; Getenet Alemu; Worku Gebeyehu (Editors) and Ethiopian Economic Association
Publisher: 
Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA)
ISBN/ISSN: 
978-99944-54-32-7
Primary Descriptors: 

food security, agro-pastoralism

Secondary Descriptor: 

climate variability, adaptation measures

Geographic Descriptors: 
Eastern Ethiopia
Cataloge Date: 
10/11/2013
Broad Subject heading: 
climate change
Call Number: 
330.963 PRO 2013
Serial Key Title: 
Proceeding of the Tenth International Conference on the Ethiopian EconomyEconomy
Publication catagory: 
Content type: 
Volume: 
II
Publication date: 
2013-06-03 00:00:00
Conference Place: 
EEA Multi-Purpose Building Conference Hall, Addis Ababa
Place of publication: 
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Type of material: 
Book
Current frequency: 
Annually
Conference date: 
July 19 - 21, 2012