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Prospects and challenges of water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia with respect to MDGs.

Abstract: 

At the United Nations Millennium summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).Ethiopia is among the countries that have subscribed the MDGs. Target 10 of MDGs said that to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe water and basic sanitation. Water supply and sanitation are two most important sectors in development. The objectives of this study are to describe the water supply and sanitation coverage, to identify the source of water supply and types of sanitation, to study the regional, urban and rural distribution of water supply and sanitation facilities in the country. In addition to these, the study analyse the expected improvement of water supply and sanitation coverage with its required cost to meet the Millennium Development Goals of water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia. The study use descriptive analysis to address its objectives.
The study reveals that water supply and sanitation coverage in Ethiopia is one of the lowest in the world, which is 39.4 percent and 11.5 percent in 2004 respectively. 63.9 percent of water supply came from unprotected source of water as compared to 35.9 percent water supply source that came from protected well/spring, public and private tap. In the same way unprotected sanitation takes around 69 percent of sanitation facility. Only 31 percent of the people use protected sanitation that are flush and pit latrine toilet in the same year. The lack of safe water supply and sanitation became sever when we observe the rural area which takes more than 80 percent population. The Government of Ethiopia accepted the Millennium Development Goals to provide water supply and sanitation for 37,917,142 and 43,800.000 people at the end of the development goals. .In other words the current water supply and sanitation coverage will be 70 percent and 56 percent respectively in 2015. 19.42 billion Birr for water supply and 40 billion Birr for sanitation required to meet these targets.
Sustainability of water supply and sanitation scheme, lack of financial and skilled person, poor cost recovery, poor absorptive capacity, absence of clearly stated responsibilities between region, woreda and community water committee are the major problems that will encounter the implementation of this program. The Federal or regional government should conduct awareness campaign to local people, provide suitable vocational and technical training, improve absorptive capacity of aid or loan that available for water supply and sanitation projects in order to meet the stated MDGs

Corporate Author: 
Getnet Alemu and Edilegnaw Wale (Editor) & Ethiopian Economic Association/Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute
Publisher: 
Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA)
ISBN/ISSN: 
978-99944-54-07-5
Primary Descriptors: 

water supply

Secondary Descriptor: 

Health - sanitation

Geographic Descriptors: 
Ethiopia
Cataloge Date: 
02/27/2013
Broad Subject heading: 
Water natural resources
Call Number: 
330.963 PRO 2009
Serial Key Title: 
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy
Publication catagory: 
Content type: 
Volume: 
III
Publication date: 
2013-12-27 23:09:00
Forum or Discussion date: 
2013-02-27 15:02:14
Place of publication: 
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Type of material: 
Book
Current frequency: 
Annualy