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Agricultural Development models Reviewed: Implied practices in Ethiopia

Abstract: 

<p><em>Ethiopia has started planned and systematic economic policy measures and development programs since the mid 1940s. In general, the overall policy sprit and practices in the country can be summarized by looking at the three periods of policy regimes. The first (1950-1974) regime was characterized by a market economy encouraging foreign investment to industrialize the country using import substitution industrialization strategy which is mainly in line with industrial fundamentalism and urban industrial impact models. The second period (1974-1991) was a central planning system, which was a Marxian /Neo-Marxian development model realized through regulatory activities and nationalization of private undertakings with capital more than 500,000. The third period (since 1992) i.e. the currently functional state, started economic policy changes with structural adjustment programs (SAPs) with successive policy changes and reform program to realize market economy by expanding the participation of private investments applying many development models. With all these state and policy changes, the Ethiopian economy is still agrarian economy which accounts about 50% of the GDP.Ethiopian agriculture is predominantly a traditional farming system. It is also explained by small holders with a continuous degradation, over grazing and high population pressure on the existing farmland. This is resulted in uneconomic farmland conditions and size with a very little structural transformation of the sector over the last 35 years. The agricultural sector still suffers from recurrent drought effects emanating from high dependency on natural phenomena. Economists, development thinkers and policy makers use development models/theories to approach the complex and wide problems of development in their endeavors to formulate, implement and evaluate policies, plans and strategies. As this review indicates, some of the models have focus on extensive methods of improvement such as conservation, frontier, industrial fundamentalism, urban-industrial impact model; others introduce intensive ways-such as high pay off inputs and induced innovation models while the remainings emphasize the need for educational and social changes. Not all these models are used directly in Ethiopia except conservation &amp; Neo-Marxist models and partially high pay off inputs, diffusion and induced innovation models. The remainings are only implicitly applied, which came to be obvious at evaluation stages. However, the issues are very much open for further research with exhaustive review, enlarged country case studies and close comparisons with up to dated compiling on the Ethiopian practice &amp; condition for a more clear picture of the models as well as for a more realistic conclusions there on.</em></p>

Corporate Author: 
Alemayehu Seyoum(Editor) & Ethiopian Economic Association/Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute
Publisher: 
Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA)
Primary Descriptors: 

<p>Rural development</p>

Secondary Descriptor: 

<p>Agricultural innovations; Agriculture and state</p>

Geographic Descriptors: 
Ethiopia
Cataloge Date: 
02/27/2013
Broad Subject heading: 
Agriculture-Economic aspects
Call Number: 
330.963 PRO 2004
Serial Key Title: 
Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy
Publication catagory: 
Content type: 
Volume: 
I
Publication date: 
2013-05-27 00:00:00
Forum or Discussion date: 
2013-02-27 00:00:00
Place of publication: 
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Type of material: 
Book
Current frequency: 
Annualy